Motor is an experimental Haskell library for building finite-state machines with type-safe transitions and effects. I have just published it on Hackage, written a bunch of documentation with Haddock, and put the source code on GitHub.
This blog post is very similar to the Hackage documentation, and aims to pique your interest. The library and documentation will probably evolve and outdate this description, though.
State Machines using Row Types
The central finite-state machine abstraction in Motor is the
MonadFSM type class.
MonadFSM is an indexed monad type class, meaning that it has not one, but three type parameters:
Rowof input resource states
Rowof output resource states
- A return type (just as in
MonadFSM parameter kinds might look a bit scary, but they state the same:
class IxMonad m => MonadFSM (m :: (Row *) -> (Row *) -> * -> *) where ...
The rows describe how the FSM computation will affect the state of its resources when evaluated. A row is essentially a type-level map, from resource names to state types, and the FSM computation's rows describe the resource states before and after the computation.
An FSM computation
newConn that adds a resource named
"connection" with state
Idle could have the following type:
newConn :: MonadFSM m => "connection" ::= Idle :| r) () m r (
spawnTwoPlayers that adds two resources could have this type:
spawnTwoPlayers :: MonadFSM m => "hero2" ::= Standing :| "hero1" ::= Standing :| r) () m r (
Motor uses the extensible records in
Data.OpenRecords, provided by the CTRex library, for row kinds. Have a look at it's documentation to learn more about the type-level operators available for rows.
Building on Indexed Monads
As mentioned above,
MonadFSM is an indexed monad. It uses the definition from
Control.Monad.Indexed, in the indexed package. This means that you can use
ibind and friends to compose FSM computations.
-- 'c1' and 'c2' are FSM computations >>>= \_ -> c2c1
You can combine this with the
RebindableSyntax language extension to get do-syntax for FSM programs:
test :: MonadFSM m => m Empty Empty () = do test c1 c2<- c3 r c4 rwhere >>) a = (>>>=) a . const (>>=) = (>>>=) (
See 24 Days of GHC Extensions: Rebindable Syntax for some more information on how to use
To make it easier to read and write FSM computation types, there is some syntax sugar available.
State actions allow you to describe state changes of named resources with a single list, as opposed two writing two rows. They also take care of matching the CTRex row combinators with the expectations of Motor, which can be tricky to do by hand.
There are three state actions:
Addadds a new resource.
Totransitions the state of a resource.
Deletedeletes an existing resource.
A mapping between a resource name is written using the
:-> type operator, with a
Symbol on the left, and a state action type on the right. Here are some examples:
"container" :-> Add Empty "list" :-> To Empty NonEmpty "game" :-> Delete GameEnded
So, the list of mappings from resource names to state actions describe what happens to each resource. Together with an initial row of resources
r, and a return value
a, we can declare the type of an FSM computation using the
MonadFSM m => Actions m '[ n1 :-> a1, n2 :-> a2, ... ] r a
A computation that adds two resources could have the following type:
:: addingTwoThings MonadFSM m => Actions m '[ "container" :-> Add Empty "game" :-> Add Started , ] r ()
As an alternative to the
Delete types, Motor offers infix operator aliases. These start with
! to indicate that they can be effectful.
!--> operator is an infix alias for
:: useStateMachines MonadFSM m => Actions m '[ "program" :-> NotCool !--> Cool ] r ()
!- are infix aliases for mappings from resource names to
Delete state actions, respectively:
:: startNewGame MonadFSM m => Actions m '[ "game" !+ Started ] r ()
:: endGameWhenWon MonadFSM m => Actions m '[ "game" !- Won ] r ()
Because of how CTRex works, FSM computations that have a free variable as their input row of resources, i.e. that are polymorphic in the sense of other resource states, must list all their actions in reverse order.
:: doFourThings Game m => Actions m '[ "hero2" !- Standing "hero1" !- Standing , "hero2" !+ Standing , "hero1" !+ Standing , ] r ()= do doFourThings spawn hero1 spawn hero2 perish hero1 perish hero where >>) a = (>>>=) a . const (>>=) = (>>>=) (
This is obviously quite clumsy. If anyone has ideas on how to fix or work around it, please get in touch. Had the
r been replaced by
Empty in the type signature above, it could have had type
NoActions m Empty () instead.
Running the State Machine
runFSM function in
Motor.FSM runs an FSM computation in some base monad:
runFSM :: Monad m => FSM m Empty Empty a -> m a
FSM has instances for
IxMonadTrans and a bunch of other type classes. More might be added as they are needed.
There is only one small Door example in the repository, along with some test programs. I haven’t had much time to write examples, but hopefully I will soon. The door example does feature most of the relevant concepts, though.